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Archived 3 August 2021
BBC World Service Forum 3 June 2021 -- X-rays: New ways of seeing
The discovery of X-rays by the German scientist Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895 was nothing short of ground-breaking, opening up a new era in medicine. For the first time, doctors could see inside the human body without the need for surgery, and diagnose many more living patients.
X-rays had major implications for physics as well, allowing scientists to study the structure and arrangement of molecules. Within wider society, they inspired artists to explore what these new rays could tell us about the representation of reality. It wasn’t long before X-rays were being used to scan baggage, in airport security and even in shoe shops to measure feet before exposure to radiation was properly understood. Huge strides in X-ray technology have given us the type of modern scans that are used today to detect conditions such as cancer.
Joining Bridget Kendall are Drs Adrian Thomas and Arpan Banerjee, both radiologists who’ve collaborated on publications about the history of X-rays, and artist Susan Aldworth who’s used brain scans in her work to investigate the nature of identity.
Listen to the recording at https://www.bbc.co.uk/programm
The British Society for the History of Medicine Biennial Congress -- archived 31/5/21
Diamond Building – The University of Sheffield
Wednesday 15th - Saturday 18th September 2021
History of Medicine in the Workplace
History of Pandemics
History of Nursing
Innovation in Medical Engineering
Abstract submissions on these themes and General Topics are welcome. The closing date for receipt of abstracts is the 31st May 2021. If research has been delayed owing to restricted access to libraries, archives or other resources, this may be stated in abstract submissions where relevant.
For Congress information and booklet, registration, abstract submission and accommodation please go to https://bshm.org.uk/congress-2021/
WEBINAR THURSDAY 2 JULY 2020 -- archived 26/5/21
Presentations selected from the submitted abstracts on the history of imaging(click title for slides):
History and evolution of Artificial Intelligence -
Early chest radiology pioneers and the beginnings of chest radiology -
Miss Marion Frank (1920 -
Kathleen Clara Clark (1896-
RECENT INTEREST archived 26/5/21
Francis Duck. Scope 29(2) Summer 2020. 32–35 ‘The Radium Boss -
Edwin Aird. Scope 29(3) Autumn 2020. 22-
Past issues of SCOPE have featured several other articles of interest. These issues may be browsed free through this link
Radiotherapy is the branch of medicine that deals with treatment using radiation. Soon after the discovery of x-rays in 1895 it became apparent that X-rays were able to cause ulcers and damage to the skin. This led practitioners to using this new form of therapy for the treatment of superficial growths. The first person to apply radiation therapy was Leopold Freund in Vienna in 1896. He wrote the first book on radiotherapy in 1903. In France Despeignes in 1896 used x-ray treatment to treat a patient with stomach cancer. X-ray treatments became popular for treating unwanted hair, skin cancers, lupus vulgaris and epitheliomas .
In 1898 the Curies discovered radium and this was subsequently used as a formal therapy. Becquerel who discovered radioactivity in 1896 and shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with the Curies was another pioneer in this field. Radium which is radioactive was commonly used in bath salts and became a common cure for ailments such as arthritis and gout.
X-ray treatments were even applied in leukaemia notably by Ironside Bruce in the UK who became a radiation martyr himself.
In 1922 at the Curie Institute a French radiologist called Henry Coutard showed that fractionated treatment of x-rays could cure cancer .This was the beginning of early modern radiotherapy.The early pioneers in Britain of radiotherapy included the famous Neville Finzi radiotherapist at Saint Bartholomew’s hospital,London who treated Sigmund Freud’s cancer.
In the early days radiologists were involved in radiation treatment in addition to diagnostic radiology. Gradually from the 1930s onwards radiotherapy developed as a separate discipline breaking away from radiology which concentrated on using x-rays for a purely diagnostic purpose.
Following the discovery of linear accelerators high-voltage external-beam radiotherapy was introduced into medical practice in the 1950’s.
B Thomas A M K Banerjee AK The History of Radiology, OUP, May 2013
J An Overview on Radiotherapy: From Its History to Its Current Applications in Dermatology, Serena Gianfaldoni, Roberto Gianfaldoni, Uwe Wollina, Jacopo Lotti, Georgi Tchernev,and Torello Lotti, Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017 Jul 25; 5(4): 521–525
| Radiation_therapy --Wikipedia
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There are many sources of information about the history of radiology. Books of course but also websites, videos and many others. There are references to them throughout the website. However, for completeness we have brought a number of key resources together here. If you are able to add to it we would be very pleased to hear from you.
Includes virtual tour of museum
Major collection of science and engineering artifacts with medical section. Some radiology items. Extensive stores available for private viewing by serious researchers.
Collection of artifacts and archives relating to many aspects of the history of medicine. Fascinating but little on radiology.
The ASRT Museum and Archives is located inside the ASRT office in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Through interactive displays and educational exhibits, the museum traces the progress of medical imaging and radiation therapy professionals from the discovery of the x-
Major library holding books and journals relating to all aspects of medicine and public health. Free access with reader’s ticket available to all.
Ultrasound is a medical imaging technique which enables doctors to both visualise the internal structures of the body and can also be used for therapy.
Ultrasound does not involve X-rays. The technique involves using transducers with piezoelectric crystals which produce high-frequency soundwaves which, when applied to the body, send focussed pulses of sound waves to the internal tissues and organs These waves are reflected back to the transducer and the received data converted into images for diagnostic purposes. The investigation is done in real time.
Ultrasound imaging is used in the abdomen to visualise the abdominal structures such as the kidneys , liver and spleen. It is very useful in the assessment of the uterus and especially a developing foetus in obstetric practice. It can also visualise superficial structures such as the thyroid gland , muscles and tendons and the breast. Ultrasound does not pass through air and hence cannot be used to visualise the lungs easily. It does not pass through bone easily either and therefore intracranial structures in adults are difficult to visualise using this technique. Vascular structures such as arteries and veins are well demonstrated.
Ultrasound can be used to guide medical procedures such as biopsies of tissues.
In the heart, ultrasound can demonstrate the cardiac structures and this application is known as echocardiography.
Not all ultrasound examinations are performed by doctors. In the UK radiographers and technicians who perform ultrasound are known as sonographers. In other parts of the world they are known as radiology technicians.
Pioneers include John Wild who first used ultrasound in 1949 for measuring bowel wall thickness in the USA, Edler the Swedish cardiologist who used it in 1953 in Lund and Holmes et al in USA in 1962.
Ian Donald a Scottish obstetrician working in Glasgow was a pioneer of the applications of this technique. With the physicist Tom Brown, Donald created one of the early machines to perform ultrasound resulting in a very important paper in the Lancet in 1958 ‘Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound’.
W A History of Medical Ultrasound, Francis Duck, 2021
W Articles from Medical Physics International:
W The British Medical Ultrasound Society have a page on history, and their historical collection: https://www.bmus.org/for-patients/history-of-ultrasound/
W A history of ultrasound in gynaecology and obstetrics, which includes a great deal of detail on the older developments: https://www.ob-ultrasound.net/history1.html
B Thomas AMK Banerjee A K Busch U, Classic papers in modern diagnostic radiology, Springer Verlag, Berlin, NY. 2005 ISBN 3540219277
B Thomas A M K Banerjee AK The History of Radiology, OUP, May 2013
J Donald I Mac Vicar J Brown T.G 1958 Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound Lancet 271 1188-95
|Sonographer_doing_pediatric_echocardiography -- Wikipedia|
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Early x-ray tubes worked because vacuums were not good. The ions of residual gas atoms colliding with the cathode caused a shower of electrons and these were attracted to the anode causing the generations of x-rays. With use the gas was absorbed in the tube wall and the x-rays reduced in intensity and became harder. It was necessary to introduce more gas if the tube was to stay useful and several devices (regulators) were invented to do this. Even so gas tubes were erratic in operation and they were superseded by tubes where electrons were generated by a heated filament. These thermionic tubes – invented by William Coolidge in 1913 – were much more reliable and more powerful. They slowly took over, dominating the field after the early 1930s.
B The History of Radiology, Adrian Thomas and Arpan Banerjee