Much has changed since Rontgen's early x-rays but much has not. For plain x-rays (the usual kind) the body is still placed between an x-ray tube and a detector and there is a shadowy image to interpret. The tubes that produce the x-rays have become more reliable and more powerful. The detectors have (but only fairly recently and not completely) moved on from plates and films to digital media. Fluoroscopy has developed from the hooded luminescent screen to make use of the image intensifier and other advances.
Stereo x-rays allowed a crude 3-D view of the internal organs of the body but there was a dramatic change with the invention of the CT scanner. This provided extraordinarily detailed 3-D views of the internals of the body.
Other quite different techniques, not dependent on x-rays, delivered equally astonishing and useful images.