Computed tomography(CT)

 

CT SCANNER

 

 

Computed tomography scanning is a means by which the inside of the body can be imaged using a rotating x-ray machine which takes images from different angles around the body on a detector and by using powerful computer processing enables the production of images from the acquired data for diagnostic purposes. It is often considered as important a discovery as that of X-rays by Rontgen in that CT has revolutionised current medical practice worldwide. 

Allan Cormack  a South African physicist and Godfrey Hounsfield a British engineer are credited with this discovery with Hounsfield developing the scanner at EMI and producing the first clinical images of an axial section of the brain of a patient with Dr Ambrose a consultant neuroradiologist at Atkinson Morley Hospital in London in 1971. 

Hounsfield and Cormack were to share the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1979 for their part in the discovery. In the mid 70s the CT scanner began to be used to image the body in cross-section.

Kalender in the late 1980s made advances with the technique by discovering  spiral volumetric CT scanning which would enable the CT scans to be done faster and would enable 3-D images to be obtained.

 

 

REFERENCES 

B THOMAS AMK  BANERJEE AK BUSCH U Classic Papers in Modern Diagnostic Radiology  Springer Verlag, Berlin, NY.  2005    ISBN 3540219277

B THOMAS A M K   BANERJEE  AK  The  History of Radiology OUP May 2013 

CT (Computed Tomography) Scans - A Level Physics,  Dr PhysicsA

A basic description of the mechanism of CT (computed tomography) scans for medical use in remote sensing. Part of the A Level Physics revision series.

W CT Scan https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CT_scan

IMAGES

GE LightSpeed CT scanner at Open House, Monroeville, Pennsylvania

CC, daveynin

 

 

 

TOMOGRAPHY

 

CT SCANNER

 

 

Plain tomography

 

Computed tomography CT

 

 

REFERENCES 

 
IMAGES

GE LightSpeed CT scanner at Open House, Monroeville, Pennsylvania

CC, daveynin

 

 

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ULTRASOUND

Overview

 

   
X-RAY  TUBES

OVERVIEW

Early x-ray tubes worked because vacuums were not good.  The ions of residual gas atoms colliding with the cathode caused a shower of electrons and these were attracted to the anode causing the generations of x-rays. With use the gas was absorbed in the tube wall and the x-rays reduced in intensity and became harder. It was necessary to introduce more gas if the tube was to stay useful and several devices (regulators) were invented to do this. Even so gas tubes were erratic in operation and they were superseded by tubes where electrons were generated by a heated filament. These thermionic tubes – invented by William Coolidge in 1913 –  were much more reliable and more powerful. They slowly took over, dominating the field after the early 1930s.

 

 

MORE INFORMATION 

The History of Radiology, Adrian Thomas and Arpan Banerjee 


The Hooded Anode, Zahi Hakim  IL27 p12 (S)


Hakim’s website with images and pdf guide to contents http://www.earlytubes.com/


A brief history of the x-ray tube, Adrian Thomas IL15 p36 

 

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Plain x-ray radiography

Overview

Tubes

Detectors

Ancillaries

Systems